Tramatic Brain Injury

Tramatic Brain Injury

TBI is also associated with closed head injuries as oppose to penetrating injuries of the skull and brain stem, although not always exclusively since there can be multiple characteristics of initial injuries with both penetrating and non-penetrating effects.. (Papanicolaou) There are an estimated 20 to 50 million people [worldwide]are injured or disabled in road traffic accidents every year with those between ages 18 and 25 experiencing the greatest incidence. According to the Centers for Disease Control, individuals over age 75 are at high risk for TBI due to falls. By 2020, the World Health Organization projects that road traffic injuries will be the third leading cause of global disease or injury. Motor vehicle accidents are a major cause of TBI in less developed countries and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality (Bay, Kreulen, Shavers, and Currier 141) TBI severity is grouped into three general classifications: mild, moderate, or severe. The diagnosis is dependent upon several factors, the depth and length any coma that was induced by the TBI, the duration of any posttraumatic amnesia, the overall time to respond consistently to stimuli, as well as the neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies, and measures of brainstem function. As severity levels increase, the range and extent of possible long-term physical, cognitive, and psychosocial impairments increases. (Degeneffe 257) These classifications have been further codified by the introduction of the Glasgow Coma Scale, which was originally developed to help practitioners diagnose the level of consciousness of a patient after a head injury. It has now been adapted to rate TBI survivors in the mild, moderate or severe classification. The scale is reproduced in Appendix I. There is certainly a general lack of understanding regarding individual how have suffered a TBI and the resultant issues arising from it. This results in many TBI sufferers receiving treatment by medical, psycho-social or other personnel who do not have experience with TBI. This is especially true in cases of Mild TBI where the patient is presented with headache, vomiting, dizziness. work-related difficulties, forgetfulness, or mood disorders without mention any current head trauma thus impairing a proper diagnosis and treatment. By informing medical practitioners about the general symptoms of TBI, there would be a better chance of asking if the patient had suffered a recent head injury. (Bay, Kreulen, Shavers, and Currier) Once a TBI has been diagnosed often the first medical professional to be alerted is the neuropsychologist. Neuropsychology is a complex field of psychology for it incorporates a variety of other sciences such as psychiatry, neuroscience, neurology as well as cognitive psychology. The general theory of Clinical Neuropsychology will provide the basic tools and techniques necessary to assist individuals with TBI in developing the appropriate coping skills and strategies needed to reclaim their lives. This will allow them to return to a life of greater independence in order to live successfully in the community. The conducted research and readings surrounding Clinical Neuropsychology has an in depth understanding of the organic component of brain damage in those with TBI, giving a keener insight into the treatment and therapies that

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