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Nono Discussion Question The expertise-oriented evaluation approach has its disadvantages. Owing to the dependence on human observation and personal perspective, there is a tendency to reduce the importance of instrumentation, as well as group data (Hogan, 2007). In addition, advocates have been criticized due to the subjectivity of the evaluation process and the possibility of conflicts that may arise among participants. This is a prime concern to us parents. The participants could choose to manipulate the situation or extract at critical times, causing the evaluation to be invalid. This approach will not function properly in a group that is uncooperative, hostile or not evenly represented. Turnover may also take a long time, plus it also has limited external accountability (Ballou, 1916). This evaluation depends majorly on the skills of evaluators, but what the students need is someone who they are conversant with such as their teachers to evaluate them.
References
Ballou, F.A. (1916). Work of the Department of Educational Investigation and measurement. Boston, MA: Chicago: University Press.
Hogan, L. (2007). The historical development of program evaluation: Exploring the past and present. Charleston, Illinois: Eastern Illinois University. Retrieved 24th July, 2012 from http://wed.siu.edu/Journal/VolIInum4/Article_4.pdf
Question 2
Even though, involving many stakeholders will formulate chances of better results, some stakeholders tend to shut other stakeholders out of the program since they think that they are more experienced than the other stakeholders. For example, administrators, expert evaluators and parents may dismiss the opinions and views of the high school students because they may feel the students are inexperienced and not knowledgeable enough. Also, the expert evaluators involved will mostly shut the parents out of the evaluation without taking into consideration that parents only want the best for the children. These professional evaluators see parents as setbacks to their plans (Hogan, 2007). Students, on the other hand, might end up not cooperating with the evaluators (McCarthy, 2008). A way of preventing such a case is by stating the roles of each stakeholder early before the evaluation begins. It is vital for every stakeholder to know his or her duty in the program before the program commences so as to avoid any hindrances. It is also important for all the stakeholders to understand the roles of the other stakeholders so that they do not take each other for granted.
References
Hogan, L. (2007). The historical development of program evaluation: exploring the past and present. Charleston, Illinois: Eastern Illinois University. Retrieved 24th July, 2012 from http://wed.siu.edu/Journal/VolIInum4/Article_4.pdf
McCarthy, B. (2008). Program evaluation and policy analysis. Retrieved 24th July, 2012 from http://www.fivehokies.com/Evaluation/Evaluation%20Approaches/Expertise%20Oriented/Expertise.aspx
Discussion 2
Question 1
Some of key sources for this evaluation include observation, document review, expert panels, interviews, focus groups discussions, stakeholder analysis, and surveys. This is because these are the best means of collecting answers to the questions that need answers to make the evaluation a success. Key stakeholders in this evaluation include the evaluator, students, and the university’s administration. The evaluator is important because he/she will act as a consultant. The evaluator is the guide to other stakeholders during the evaluation. The university’s administration acts as the inductive source of reasoning. The administration’s work is to provide the goals they seek to attain in setting up the computer science college (Williams, 2002). Finally, the students are supposed to support and be involved in the program since the program is supposed to assist them in their education. Two vital questions that could be asked before this evaluation are whether a higher number of the students will complete the courses of the computer college and achieve most objectives or whether students might be served well served by this course. These two questions will assert whether the program is viable or not (Williams, 2002).
Reference
Williams, D. (2002). Improving use of learning technologies in higher education through participant oriented evaluations. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University. Retrieved 24th July, 2012 from http://www.ifets.info/journals/5_3/williams.html
Question 2
Absolute standards should be used because they remove all impurities in a program, permitting only the best to pass through and carry on in their aim. In this college evaluation, absolute standards should be used to evaluate the program because they are more effective in such a scenario. Absolute standards are the transformations of the education goals in the program that dictate cutoff marks on the correct score scale of the test. Absolute standards form the predetermined levels that the students correct performance must surpass to be given mastery status and, for example, to be permitted to advance with the next instructional unit. Therefore, absolute standards will ensure a higher level of success in such a scenario as opposed to relative standards.

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