Hypothyroidism and dna

Hypothyroidism and dna

Hypothyroidism and DNA Affiliation Hypothyroidism and DNA Introduction Nearly every physiologic process is affected by thyroid hormones. The Deoxyribonucleic acid is a molecule that controls every physiologic process in the body. The relationship between thyroid hormones and DNA is intricate. Two terms describe the amount of thyroid hormone in the body. hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Hypothyroidism implies that thyroid hormone levels do not have any impact on body tissues while hyperthyroidism indicates that thyroid hormone levels have excessive impact on the body tissues. The paper will particularly assess the relationship between hypothyroidism and DNA.
According to Lavin (2009), hypothyroidism can be termed as thyroid hormone deficiency whereby the thyroid hormone levels in the body have no effects on the body tissues as required. He notes that thyroid hormones deficiency has numerous negative impacts on the overall functioning of the body tissues (Lavin, 2009). How does hypothyroidism affect DNA? It affects DNA by interfering with the usage of the messages carried by the DNA and DNA transcription. By binding to the receptors found on the nucleus of each cell, DNA transcription is affected. Hence, hypothyroidism leads to low levels of transcription of DNA. It reduces DNA synthesis (Thurlbeck &amp. Churg, 1995).
The cause of hypothyroidism could be injury to the thyroid gland. An illness such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis can cause it. It leads to the production of antibodies that destroy the thyroid gland. Such illness is regarded to as an autoimmune disease. If the pituitary gland is destroyed or is not functioning properly, then thyroid hormone production is reduced. Some medications like lithium cause hypothyroidism. (Harvard Health Publications. White, &amp. Garber, 2010). Genetics is can be used to explain how DNA mutation and alteration cause hypothyroidism. When there are DNA changes in various genes, then this can cause congenital hypothyroidism. The number of chromosomes also leads to hypothyroidism (Valente, Hosford-Dunn, &amp. Roeser, 2008).
DNA and hypothyroidisim have an intricate relationship. Ptaff (2002) asserts that relations of thyroid hormone with the proteins that bind Deoxyribonucleic acid is the main means through which thyroid hormone controls transcription of thyroid hormone-responsive genes (Ptaff, 2002). In hypothyroidism, DNA methyltransferase activity is regulated more while that of histone acetylases is regulated less (Acton, 2012).
The thyroid –stimulating hormone β gene defect has been found in various families with hypothyroidism. The defect in the gene is caused by substitution of one base in the gene. It leads to failure of the formation of a functioning hormone (Bernstam, 1992). The Bcl-2 gene’s expression is enhanced by thyroid hormone. However, the expression of Bcl-2 family genes is altered by hypothyroidism. The alteration encourages improved apoptosis in the cerebellum. The fragmentation of DNA is widespread under hypothyroidism (Barnett, 2007).
Precise repair of DNA is vital for the protection of the integrity of the genome. DNA can be repaired through nucleotide-excision, mismatch repair, or base-excision repair. In base excision repair, small chemical changes of the bases are targeted. In mismatch repair, the bases that have been mispaired are corrected. While in nucleotide-excision repair, there is favoured repair of the helix-distorting lesions (Balajee, 2007). Treatment of hypothyroidism can be done through lifetime hormonal replacement therapy with artificial hormones (Abbate, 2011).
References
Abbate, S. (2011). Advanced Techniques in Oriental Medicine. New York: Thieme.
Acton, Q. A. (2012). Hypothyroidism: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional. ScholarlyEditions.
Balajee, A. (2007). DNA Repair and Human Disease. New York: Springer Science &amp. Business Media.
Barnett, G. H. (2007). High-Grade Gliomas: Diagnosis and Treatment. Totowa, New Jersey: Springer Science &amp. Business Media.
Bernstam, V. A. (1992). CRC Handbook of Gene Level Diagnostics in Clinical Practice. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
Harvard Health Publications. White, Sandra S. Garber, Jeffrey R. (2010). Thyroid Disease: Understanding Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism. Boston: Harvard Health Publications.
Lavin, N. (2009). Manual of Endocrinology and Metabolism (4th ed.). (N. Lavin, Ed.) Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams &amp. Wilkins.
Ptaff, D. W. (2002). Hormones, Brain and Behavior. San Diego: Academic Press.
Thurlbeck, W. M., &amp. Churg, A. (1995). Pathology of the Lung (2nd ed.). (W. M. Thurlbeck, &amp. A. Churg, Eds.) New York: Thieme.
Valente, M., Hosford-Dunn, H., &amp. Roeser, R. J. (2008). Audiology Treatment (2nd ed.). New York: Thieme.

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