However, the vocal techniques and speech skills of performers begin to affect the audience in a unique way as the performance continues. Musical progressions and costumes of Chinese actors are different from anything witnessed in European opera. The Chinese counterpart stands distinguished in the respect that vocal techniques are used primarily in songs. Research claims that these techniques form a core principle because they help to express emotion in Chinese opera by enhancing the aesthetic qualities of sound in the language of the pihuang musical system (Wichmann 267). The musical system employed in Chinese opera is called Pei Huang. Musical progressions hold extreme importance in Chinese opera in terms of expressing emotion which is why Chinese opera is also sometimes called pihuang theatre. The pihuang system comprises of many elements like modal system and modes which are arranged according to requirements of a specific play to demonstrate the fundamental psychology of its major characters (Wichmann 53).Discuss the debate about Nandan performance in the first several decades of the twentieth century. What were the arguments for and against men playing female roles on the Chinese opera stage? Give a brief historical overview of cross-gender performance in Chinese opera.The debate about Nandan performance poses fatal questions to Chinese opera. People still argue if it is right to abolish Nandan or not. Nandan performance is about female impersonation in Chinese opera. The early Republican era or the first several decades of the 20th century are considered the best of times for Nandan performers who are male actors entrusted with the controversial job of portraying women. The Republican stage in the early 20th century promoted the popularity of Nandan stars like Mei Lanfang and Cheng Yanqiu. These Nandan performers surpassed other male actors who played roles of idealistic macho type men.